K- Means Clustering is an unsupervised machine learning technique which is used to group similar data points together into a cluster. Now first question arises how similarity is measured between data points and is it the reliable algorithm.

Let us see below the algorithm to carry out the above task:

- Select number of clusters k you want to put data into. Don’t worry we have a cute way, Elbow method, of doing this which we will see later both in theory and implementation in python.
- Select randomly centroid for each cluster. …

‘Everything in python is an object’ is one of the line that every developers gets to hear. I have tried to explain four very important concepts in OOP in very simple terms with practical examples. I hope you people find it useful and easy to understand. So first let us start with the definitions.

Encapsulation is defined as the wrapping up of the essential data features and methods into single unit primarily class. Let us understand it with an example below:

We can see how different features like name, matches and scored and methods avg(), review() into a single class…

In other words x is Granger causal for y if x helps predict y at some stage in the future. Often you will have that x Granger causes y and y Granger causes x. This is the situation of feedback system.Now let us see how to carry out the process.1.Firstly we need to ensure that time series say x and y is stationary. If original time series is not stationary then you have to carry out some transformations to make them stationary.2.Then we have to check whether some linear relationship exists between the variables. For that we…

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